Preliminary study on the soft packaging technology

2022-08-22
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Preliminary study on the soft packaging technology of braised leather mustard catfish

at present, the breeding of leather mustard catfish has been very common, with high yield per unit area. However, due to the concentration of listing, the price is very low. From September to October every year, a large number of leather mustard catfish are difficult to sell out in a short time, pushing down the price each other, resulting in the phenomenon of high yield and no economic benefits. In order to solve this problem, the author has done the packaging test of replacing the braised leather mustache catfish soft lead screw with ball lead screw, and successively processed it into braised fish pieces, braised sashimi pieces and braised fish chops. Now the relevant technologies are introduced as follows for the reference of colleagues

I. process flow

purchase of live adult fish → temporary rearing with water → slaughtering → pickling → draining → process cooking → vacuum packaging → high temperature sterilization → inspection → outer packaging → packing and sales

II. Raw materials and equipment

1 main raw materials

① live catfish with leather beard: the specification is more than 1000 grams, the larger the size, the higher the meat yield, and it is required to be fat, strong, disease-free and less injured

② ginger is fresh without mildew, green onions are moderate in thickness, symmetrical and fresh, and the quality of soy sauce, rice vinegar, cooking wine, sesame oil, soybean oil, salt, monosodium glutamate and sugar all meet the relevant national quality standards

③ seasoning: the main ingredients of Henan wangshouyi stew are: Amomum villosum, clove, fennel, pepper, Shannai, Angelica dahurica, dried ginger, ginger, Piper Piper, and fruit. The main ingredients of Guangdong Jiuzhen brand cooking seasoning are: star anise, fennel, Amomum villosum, clove, pepper, Shannai, ginger, Piper Piper Piper, otherwise it will cause machine damage, fruit, chicken extract, jade fruit, Shancha, cardamom, red cardamom, and cinnamon

2 main equipment

① temporary pond, water inlet and drainage equipment

② stove for braised fish

③ double chamber vacuum packaging machine

④ autoclave with high temperature and pressure

⑤ packaging bag and packaging box: the packaging bag has two inner and outer layers, the inner layer is made of high temperature resistant materials, and the packaging box is a hard carton

III. operation methods

1 raw material treatment

① temporarily feed the leather bearded catfish. Live catfish are kept in a temporary pond with clean water for 24-48 hours, and the water temperature is 13 ~ 20 ℃. No feeding is allowed during the temporary feeding period, and the length of temporary feeding depends on the water temperature, water quality and fish quality. If the water quality becomes dirty, clean water should be replaced. The purpose of temporary breeding is to remove the earthy smell on the leather bearded catfish

② slaughtering. Fish out the temporarily raised live leather bearded catfish, chop off its head, bleed, and die. After that, open the stomach to remove its internal organs and fins, and put it into clean water to wash the blood stain, abdominal cavity and body surface

③ cut into pieces. There are three cutting methods:

the first method is to directly cut the cleaned fish into 2cm wide, 4cm long and 2cm thick fish pieces

the second method is to use a sharp blade or an "L" shaped knife edge to cut off the fish meat along the "" shaped bone of the fish and separate it from the bone spur. The obtained net meat was cut into 1.5cm wide, 3.5cm long and 1.5cm thick meat pieces

the third is to cut the remaining bones with meat into 3cm wide ribs for processing braised fish chops

2 marinate, drain

add water to cook meat for 45 minutes, add salt to account for 10% of the weight of the water, stir and cook for another 5 minutes, dry and cool, put the cut fish pieces into the salt water for 30 minutes, and then put them out on the fence. How to solve the floating fiber of ABS glass fiber reinforced material or sieve it for ventilation? When draining for 5 ~ 10 hours, the temperature is between 0 ℃ ~ 10 ℃

3 braised method

first heat the pot, add a little edible oil, add ginger and scallion, and then burn it violently, and then add fish 2. Then check whether the serial port cable is connected with the computer, fry it for 3 ~ 5 minutes, then add cooking seasoning, pause, and pour cooking wine, sugar, vinegar, soy sauce, and salt. The roasting time is 20 minutes, and then put in monosodium glutamate and sesame oil

4 packaging

the inner packaging adopts high-temperature, high-pressure, non-toxic food packaging bags, which have good heat sealing, water resistance, light and gas barrier performance, and must have a certain mechanical strength. As far as possible: 15cm × 20cm and 16cm × 21cm two kinds. Take a little soup with the braised fish pieces, weigh the barbed meat pieces quantitatively to 150 grams, the bone containing meat pieces to 200 grams, and the ribs to 250 grams, and put them into the inner packaging bag. Use a vacuum machine to extract the air in the bag, and at the same time, use a sealing machine to seal the mouth of the bag. The operation is required to be careful and meticulous to ensure quality

5 sterilization

sterilization mainly adopts high temperature and back pressure methods. The temperature is controlled at 110 ℃, the sterilization time is 18 minutes, and the shelf life can reach 6 months

6 cooling

the sterilization time has come. Immediately pour cold water into the bag, causing negative pressure. The cooling temperature is 10 ℃ ~ 15 ℃, and the time is about 20 minutes

7 inspection

① randomly sample 100 bags to check the sealing strength, whether the packaging bag is damaged, whether there is gas in the bag, and whether the weight of each bag meets the standard. Then open the packing bag and check the shape, color and smell of the meat. The weight of solids shall not be less than 95%. Taste the fish, check whether it tastes tender and delicious, and make inspection records for future use

② take another 100 bags and store them at a constant temperature of 35 ℃, take 20 bags every 48 hours to check for deterioration and abnormalities, and make records. After 10 days, summarize the quality and determine whether they can be sold

8 outer packaging

after passing the inspection, seal a layer of plastic packaging with beautiful appearance, and indicate relevant matters, then pack it. The box should not be too thick, 20cm is enough, and 20 bags per box is appropriate

IV. cost accounting

after the test, the leather bearded catfish weighing 1000 grams has its head and viscera removed, and it is 650 grams after pickling and draining. The finished product is 600g, that is, the yield is 60%. After the same treatment, 1000 grams of leather bearded catfish can get 450 grams of barbecued fish pieces and 16 grams of braised fish chops. According to the calculation of 6 yuan per 1000 grams of live fish, the seasoning is 0.5 yuan, and the processing fee is 0.5 yuan, then the cost price of 600 grams of finished products is 7 yuan, that is, 11.6 yuan/kg, and the cost per 200 grams is 2.34 yuan. If the braised fish steak is calculated at 9 yuan/kg, the barbed braised fish meat is 12.36 yuan/kg, that is, the cost of each bag is 1.86 yuan. Braised fish steak is 2.25 yuan per bag

v. experience and suggestions

1 processing Prospect: I think the leather beard catfish has good meat quality, few thorns, and is very convenient to process. In particular, it is easy to process into thornless small packaged food, which solves the problem of "difficult" for children to eat fish. In addition, the leather beard catfish is easy to breed, has high yield per unit area, has sufficient supply, and has a concentrated time to market, and the fish price is low, which provides rare business opportunities for processing

2 because I am only experimenting, the degree of mechanization and specialization is not high. If facing the large market, we should adopt mechanized and assembly line operation. Further research is needed on the detailed technology of cooking, pickling and other processing methods

source: Chinese agriculture

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